Hauptmenü
  • Autor
    • Humber, William
  • TitelA comprehensive treatise on the water supply of cities and towns with numerous specifications of existing waterworks
  • VerlagsortLondon
  • VerlagCrosby Lockwood
  • Erscheinungsjahr1876
  • BeschreibungXIV, 378 S., [100] Bl.
  • Beschreibungzahlr. Ill., graph. Darst., Kt.
  • ZugriffsrechteAuch auzserhalb des TU-Netzes nutzbar

Kapitel

  • Prefacepdfvii
  • Contentspdfix
  • List Of Works Illustrated And Index to Platespdfxiii
  • I. Historical Sketch Of Some Of The Means That Have Been Adopted for The Suppy Of Water To Cities And Towns pdf1Introduction—Ancient Wells—Egyptian Reservoirs—Pools of Jerusalem—Aqueduct of Carthage—Greece: Aqueduct near Patara—Rom: its Aqueducts; Knowledge of the Principles and Action of the Syphon; Distribution of the Water—Constantinopel: its Resevoirs, Aqueducts, and Cisterns—Roman Aqueducts in Spain and France—Ruins of Aqueducts in Peru—Indian Reservoirs—Water Supply of Paris—Water Supply of London: Springs, Brooks, and Wells; Conduit Houses; Conveyance of Water from ‘Tyborne’; Thames Water; Water brought in from Hampstead; London Bridge Waterworks; York Buildings Waterworks; Merchants’ Waterworks; New River Company; Chelsa, Lambeth, Grand Junction, West Middlesex, East London, Soutwark, Vauxhall, and Kent Waterworks Companies; Various Schemes proosed for the Supply of Water to London; Judgement of the Royal Commission—Conclusion.
  • II. Water And The Foreign Matter Usually Associated With Itpdf18Chemical Composition and Physical Characteristics of Water—Phenomena of Freezing and Boiling—Latent Heat of Water and Steam—Solvent Power of Water—Sources of Water: Rain; Impurities of Rain Water—Lakes, Streams, and Rivers: Soft River Water from Impervious Districts; Effect of Soft Waters on Iron Pipes; River Waters from Districts where Carbonate of Lime prevails; River Pollution—Organic Impurities, and the Capability of Chemical Analysis to estimate the same—Action of Athmospheric Oxygen in rendering the Impurities innocuous—Nitrates and Nitrites—Albumenoid matter—Germs— Microscopial Examination of Water—Spring and Well Water: Impurities of the Water from Shallow or Surface Wells; Quality of Deep Well Water from the Chalk and the new Red Sandstone—Action of Water on Lead—Dr. Clark's Soap Test— Temporary and Permanent Hardness—Hard Water versus Soft, viewed with Regard to Health, and Domestic and Manufacturing Economy—Clarke's Softening Process—Analysis of the Softened Water from the Canterbury Works.
  • III. Rainfall and Evaporationpdf32Early Observations—Various descriptions of Rain Gauges—Effect of the Physical Configuration of the District on Rainfall—Influence of Railways upon Weather— Tables of Rainfall in various Districts—Decadal Law of Rainfall—Estimation of the Maximum and Minimum from the Mean Annual Fall—Available Rainfall—Distribution of Rain over the variuos Seasons—Maximun Fall in twenty-four hours—Gauge for Ascertaining the Rate of Fall—Evaporation and Absorption—Evaporation from Surfaces of Water.
  • IV. Springs; And the Water-Bearing Formations of Various Districtspdf43Infiltration of Rainfall—Experiments by Dickenson, Dalton, and Charnock—Barlow's Suggestions concerning the Dalton Gauge—Estimate of Adsorption into the Tertiary Sands and Greensands—Absorbent Capicities of various Rocks—Experiments as to Absorbent Capacity of Sand, by Prestwich; and of Chalk, by Dr. Smith—Caverns and Fissures Limestone Springs —Water bearing Strata—General Conditions under which Springs are found—Springs caused by Faults—Artesian Springs—Range, Lithological Character, and Hydrographical Conditions of the several Geological Formations: Alluvium; Newer Pliocene; Later Teritary Deposits; Drift, Red Crag, Coralline Crag, Norwich Crag, Miocene, Eocene; Bagshot Sands; the London Clay; Lower Tertiary Strata; the Chalk, Chalk Marl, Upper Greensand, Gault, Lower Greensand; the Wealden; Upper Oolitic; Portland Stone, Portland Sand, Kimmeridge Clay; the Middle Oolitic, Coral Rag, Calcareous Grit, Oxford Clay; Lower Oolitic; Cornbrash, Forest Marble, Great or Bath Oolite, Fuller's Earth; Inferior Oolite and Sand; Lias Beds; the new Red Sandstone, or Trias; the Magnesian Limestone, or Permian Group; Carboniferous Series; Coal Measures, Millstone Grit, Carboniferous Limestone; Devonian or Old Red Sandstone; Silurian, Cambrian, and Igneous Rocks—Conclusion.
  • V. Measurement And Estimation Of The Flow Of Waterpdf68Weight of Water—Units of Volume and Time—Discharge—Action of Gravity— Theoretical Velocit—Path traversed by a jet of Waterissuing with a known Velocity—Orifices in thin Plates, or thin-edged Orifices—Coefficient of Velocity—True mean Velocity under small Charges—Contraction of the Fluid Vein—Coefficient of Discharge—Circular Orifices-Rectangular Orifices—True mean Velocity—Experiments by Poncelet and Lesbros—Notches and Weirs—Rectangular and Triangular Notches-Right-angled Triangular Notches—Experiments by Messrs. Blackwell and Simpson, and Boileau—Suppressed Contraction—Velocity of Approach—Separating Weirs—Submerged Orifices and Weirs—Adjutages: Cylindrical, Conically Converging, and Conically Diverging—Shoots—Discharge under a variable Head—Time of Emptying Prismatic and other Reservoirs—Discharge from one Vessel into another—Flow of Water through uniform Channels—Mean Velocity determined by Maximum Surface Velocity­—Accelerating and Retarding Forces—Mean Velocity of Flow in Rivers and open Channels, and through long and short Pipes­—Friction caused by Bends and sudden Enlargements—Total Loss of Head, and final Velocity—Determination of the Section when the Discharge and Head are given.
  • VI. On The Selection Of The Source Of Supplypdf83Introductory-Estimation of Quantity required; Population; Consumption per head for different purposes; Waste; Constant and Inter­mittent Systems of Supply; Consumption in London; Trade and Public Purposes—Quality of the Water—Delivery of Water under Pressure—Various Sources—Gravitation Schemes; Catchment Area; Mean and available Rainfall; Gauging Streams; Compensation; Storage Capacity in Relation to Drainage Area; Illustrations; Purification and Distribution-River Schemes: Flow from large Districts; Measurement of the Flow of Rivers; Necessity for Pumping; Intakes; Chicago—Springs—Well Schemes—Miscellaneous.
  • VII. Wellspdf95
  • VIII. Reservoirspdf115Different kinds of Reservoirs —Available Capacity —Storage Reservoirs: Capacity; various methods and rules —compensation Reservoirs —depositing Reservoirs: theory, dimensions and proportions; area relatively with filter beds —Service Reservoirs their various uses; capacity required —Natural Reservoirs or Lakes: salmon stairs —Semi-natural Reservoirs: theory and construction of earth-work and masonry dams; puddle walls; springs on the site of the dam; outlet arrangements; wasteweir and byewash; syphon weir; separating weir —Reservoirs entirely artificial: economical proportions: cost; covering; regulator —Water Towers.
  • IX. The Purification Of Waterpdf136lNTRODUCTION—Various methods of purification: distillation, aeration, precipitation, straining, filtration—Theories of the action of sand filters, charcoal filters, and 'carbide' filters—Filtration through natural strata: filtering galleries at Genoa, Toulouse, Lyons, Perth—Filtration through artificial strata of sand and gravel: early failures at Glasgow; first filters of the Chelsea Waterworks Company; rate of filtration; filtering media of the Metropolitan Companies—Construction of filter beds: head and depth of water; inlet arrangements; drains and culverts: air pipes, overflows, and wash-outs—Cleansing filter beds—Sand washing appliances­—Cleansing by back-flow: Greenock Waterworks; Dunkerque Waterworks—Leghorn Waterworks­—Wakefield Waterworks—Cost of filtration.
  • X. Pumps.pdf147
  • XI. Pumping Machinerypdf158
  • XII. Conduitspdf169
  • XIII. Distribution of Waterpdf179
  • XIV. Meters, Service Pipes, And House Fittingspdf202
  • XV. The Law And Economy Of Waterworks.pdf219Summary of the Laws affecting Waterworks—Cost of numerous Gravitation, Pumping, and Combined Gravitation and Pumping Works—Forms of Water Companies' Accounts—Rates charged in various British and Continental Towns—Public versus Private Ownership—False Economies.
    • The Laws and Economy of WaterworksAddenda to Chapter XVpdf244
    • Water SupplyAddenda to chapter XVpdf244
    • The Public Health Act, 1875Addenda to Chapter XVpdf245
    • Borrowing PowersAddenda to Chapter XVpdf245
    • The Public Works and Local Loans ActsAddenda to Chpater XVpdf245
  • XV. Constant And Intermittent Supplypdf247
  • XVII. Description Of Platespdf261
  • Appendix ATable showing the mean Velocities of Water flowing in Uniform channels and Pipes. Calculated from Du Buat's Formula.pdf293
  • Appendix BTable Showing Supply per Minute, Day, and Year, and Drainage Area required for a given Population. pdf294
  • Appendix CTable showing the Size, Weight, Safe Head, And Strenght of Cast-iron Water-Pipes.pdf295
  • Appendix DTable showing the cost of Cast-iron Pipes from 2 to 48 inches Diameter, giving the Lenght of each Pipe, Thickness, Safe-Head, Weight per Pipe, and Cost per Yard, at 5£ per Ton and also £1 per Ton.pdf296
  • Appendix ESpecifications of Waterworks.297Gosport Waterworks: Wells. Brompton, Chatham, Gillingham, and Rochester Waterworks: Service Reservoir. Lambeth Waterworks: Decimus Burton Road Reservoir. Dublin Corporation Waterworks: Socket Pipes and other Castings; Pipe-laying, &c. Bideford Waterworks: Impounding Reservoir; Filter Beds and a Covered Service Reservoir; Cast-iron Socket Pipes and Glazed and Unglazed Socket Pipes; Laying and Jointing Mains; Sluice Valves, Hydrants, &c. Dundee Waterworks: Store and Compensation Reservoir. Rotherham Waterworks: Reservoir; Filter Beds; Pure Water Basin; Overflows; Earthenware and Cast-iron Pipe Conduits and other Works. Aberdeen Waterworks : Inlet Tanks; Aqueduct; Reservoirs; Filters; Cast-iron Aqueducts; Cast-iron Pipes and Pipe-laying Embankments, with Dry-Rubble Hearting Culverts; Hydraulic Engine and Pumps and Buildings; Engines; &c. Canterbury Waterworks : Cast-iron Pipes. Halifax CorporationWaterworks: Flood and Waste Watercourses; Waste Weirs; Two Reservoirs; Shafts; Tunnels; Pipe-laying Basin; Diversion of Fulshaw Stream; Pipe-laying; Weirs, &c.
  • Index367
  • Works by William Humber, Assoc. Inst. C.E. etc.

Tafeln

  • 1. Wellspdf
  • 2. System Recommended by Robert Rawlinson .C.B.For Forming Reservoir Dams And Filter Bedspdf
  • 3. Bradford & Sheffield WaterworksJ. W. Leather Engineer ; Sections of Reservoir Damspdf
  • 4. Bombay WaterworksHenry Conybeare, Engineerpdf
  • 5. New River CompanyFiltering Beds At The Green Lanes Station, Stoke-Newington ; William Milne & James Muire, Engineers
  • 6. Filtration Of Waterpdf
  • 7. Covered Reservoirspdf
  • 8. Pumping Enginespdf
  • 9. Eastbourne WaterworksMessrs. M' Clean & Stileman, Engineers ; Engine  And Pumpspdf
  • 10. Lambeth WaterworksEngines At Brixton Pumping Station ; Simpson  & Compy, Engineerspdf
  • 11. Air Vessels And Stand Pipespdf
  • 12. Pipes And Pipe-Jointspdf
  • 13. Dublin Waterworks.Parke Neville, Engineerpdf
  • 14. Liverpool WaterworksThomas Hawksley, Engineer ; Details Of Valvespdf
  • 15. Street Appendagespdf
  • 16. Bideford Waterworks.Baldwin Latham, Engineerpdf
  • 17. Bideford Waterworkspdf
  • 18. Bideford WaterworksFilter Beds And Service Rervoirpdf
  • 19. Dundee WaterworksJames Leslie, Engineerpdf
  • 20. Rotherham WaterworksJohn Lawson, Engineerpdf
  • 21. Rotherham WaterworksUlley Storage Reservoirpdf
  • 23. Rotherham WaterworksFilter Beds And Screening Chamber At Ulley Brookpdf
  • 24. Port-Glasgow WaterworksJ.M. Cale, Engineer ; Northern Embankmentpdf
  • 25. Manchester WaterworksJ.F. Bateman, Engineer ; Vale House And Bottoms Resservoirpdf
  • 26. Manchester WaterworksSluice Machinery & Compensation Gaugespdf
  • 27. Loch Katrine WaterworksJ.F. Bateman, Engineerpdf
  • 28. Loch Katrine Waterworkspdf
  • 29. Loch Katrine Waterworkspdf
  • 30. Loch Katrine Waterworkspdf
  • 31. Halifax Corporation WaterworksDean Head Upper And Lower Reservoir ; J.F. Bateman, Engineerpdf
  • 32. Halifax Corporation WaterworksDean Head Upper And Lower Reservoirpdf
  • 33. Aberdeen Waterworks ExtensionJames Simpson, Engineerpdf
  • 34. Aberdeen Waterworks ExtensionReservoir And Filters At Invercanniepdf
  • 35. Aberdeen Waterworks ExtensionCast Iron Aqueductspdf
  • 36. Aberdeen Waterworks Extensionpdf
  • 37. Aberdeen Waterworks ExtensionGeneral Sections of Aqueduct Culverts & Overflow Tankspdf
  • 38. Cockermouth WaterworksJohn Lawson, Engineer ; Reservoirs And Filter Bedspdf
  • 39. Sunderland Waterworks Ryhope Pumping Station ; Thomas Hawksley, Engineerpdf
  • 40. Sunderland WaterworksRyhope Pumping Stationpdf
  • 41. Sunderland WaterworksRyhope Pumping Station ; Engine And Boiler Housepdf
  • 42. Sunderland WaterworksRyhope Pumping Station pdf
  • 43. Sunderland WaterworksDetails Of Pumps &c.pdf
  • 44. Canterbury Waterworks Samuel Collett Homersham, Engineerpdf
  • 45. Canterbury Waterworkspdf
  • 46. Canterbury Waterworks Engine, Boiler, And Well-Housespdf
  • 47. Canterbury WaterworksService Reservoir, And Filling Pipespdf
  • 48. Canterbury WaterworksSpring Water And Soft Water Pumps And Emptying Pipes For Depositing Reservoirpdf
  • 49. Dr. Clark's Softening ProcessAs Applied At The Herbert Hospital Woolwich ; By J. C. Homersham C. E.pdf
  • 50. Water Towerspdf
  • Wallasey Water Towerpdf
  • 22. Roterham Waterworkspdf